New Mexico State Flag
New Mexico State Seal
New Mexico Location
Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México) is one of the two southwestern
states of the USA. Over its
relatively long history it has also been occupied by Native American
populations, part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, a province of
the Republic of Mexico, and a U.S. territory. New
Mexico has the highest percentage of people of Hispanic ancestry
of any state, some recent immigrants and others descendants of Spanish
colonists. The state also has a large Indian population. As a result,
the demographics and culture of the state are unique for their strong
Spanish, Mexican, and American Indian cultural influences. Both English
and Spanish are officially recognized languages in the state.
- % water
315,194 km² (5th)
- Total (2000)
5.79 /km² (45th)
January 6, 1912
103°W to 109°W
Length 595 km
Wheeler Peak, 13,161 ft, 4,014 m
5,692 ft, 1735 m
Red Bluff Reservoir, 2,817 ft, 859 m
The eastern border
of New Mexico lies along
103 °W with Oklahoma,
and 3 miles (5 km) west of 103 °W with Texas.
Texas also lies south of
most of New Mexico, although
the southwestern boot-heel borders the Mexican states of Chihuahua and
Sonora. The western border with Arizona
runs along 109 °W. The 37 °N parallel forms the northern boundary
with Colorado. The states
of New Mexico, Colorado,
Arizona, and Utah
come together at the Four Corners in the northwestern corner of New
The landscape ranges
from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped
peaks. Despite New Mexico's arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses
cover a significant portion of the state. Part of the Rocky Mountains,
the broken, north-south oriented Sangre de Cristo (Blood of Christ)
range flanks both sides of the Rio Grande from the rugged, pastoral
north through the center of the state. Government lands include the
Cibola National Forest, headquartered in Albuquerque
and the Santa Fe National Forest, headquartered in Santa
Cacti, yuccas, creosote
bush, sagebrush, and desert grasses cover the broad, semiarid plains
that cover the southern portion of the state.
The Federal government
protects millions of acres of beautiful New
Mexico as national forests and monuments. The natural attractions
of New Mexico include Carlsbad
Caverns National Park and the Aztec Ruins National Monument. Thousands
of tourists annually visit the White Sands National Monument, Bandelier,
Capulin Volcano National Monument, El Morro.
The rich history
of New Mexico also attracts
visitors to such places as Fort Union, Gila Cliff Dwellings, and Salinas
Pueblo Missions national monuments and Chaco Culture National Historical
Park. Visitors also frequent the surviving native pueblos of New
Mexico. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant monies to
Other areas of geographical
and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument
and the Valles Caldera National Preserve. The Gila Wilderness lies in
the southwest of the state.
Native American Pueblos
Americans used the land and minerals of New
Mexico to build an early Southwestern culture millenia ago. Prehistoric
Native American ruins indicate a presence at modern Santa
Fe. Caves in the Sandia Mountains near Albuquerque
contain the remains of some of the earliest inhabitants of the New World.
The Pueblo people built a flourishing sedentary culture in the 1200s,
constructing small towns in the valley of the Rio Grande and pueblos
The Spanish encountered
Pueblo civilization in the 1500s. Word of the pueblos reached Cabeza
de Vaca, a Spaniard who survived a shipwreck on the coast of the Gulf
of Mexico while wandering across southern New
Mexico with his companion Estabanico in 1528–1536. Fray Marcos
de Niza enthusiastically identified the pueblos as the fabulously rich
Seven Cities of Cibola, the fabled seven cities of gold. Dispatched
from New Spain, conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led
a full-scale expedition to find these cities in 1540–1542. Coronado
camped near an excavated pueblo today preserved as Coronado State Monument
in 1541. His maltreatment of the Pueblo people while exploring the upper
Rio Grande valley led to hostility that impeded the Spanish conquest
of New Mexico.
The three largest
pueblos of New Mexico are
Domingo, and Laguna
Juan de Oñate
founded the San
Juan colony on the Rio Grande in 1598, the first European settlement
in the future state of New Mexico.
Oñate pioneered the El Camino Real, "The Royal Road"
as a 700 mile (1100 km) lifeline from the rest of New Spain to his remote
colony. Oñate was made the first governor of the new Province
of New Mexico. The Native Americans at Acoma revolted against this Spanish
encroachment but faced severe suppression.
In 1609, Pedro de
Peralta, a later governor of the Province of New Mexico, established
the settlement of Santa
Fe at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. As the seat of
government of New Mexico
since its founding, Santa
Fe is the oldest capital city in the United
States. Peralta built the Palace of Governors in 1610. Although
the colony failed to prosper, some missions flourished. Spanish settlers
arrived at the site of Albuquerque
in the mid-1600s. Missionaries attempted to convert the natives to Christianity
but had little success. The Apache revolted violently in 1676, and the
Pueblo uprising of 1680 drove the Spanish to abandon northern New
Mexico until the campaign of Diego de Vargas Zapata reestablished
Spanish control and returned Spanish colonists in 1692.
Santa Fe as a trade center, the returning
settlers founded the old town of Albuquerque
in 1706, naming for the viceroy of New Spain, the duke of Alburquerque.
Prior to its founding Albuquerque consisted
of several Haciendas and communities along the lower Rio Grande. They
constructed the Church of San Felipe de Nerí (1706). The thorough
development of ranching and some farming in the 1700s laid the foundations
for the state's still-flourishing Hispanic culture.
of France sold the vast Louisiana Purchase, which extended into the
northeastern corner of New Mexico,
to the United States in 1803.
As a part of New Spain, the remainder of the province of New Mexico
passed to independent Mexico following the 1810-1821 Mexican War of
Small trapping parties
from the United States had
previously reached Santa Fe, but the Spanish rulers forbade them to
trade. Trader William Becknell returned to the United
States in November 1821 with news that independent Mexico welcomed
trade through Santa Fe.
Becknell left Independence,
Missouri, for Santa
Fe early in 1822 with the first party of traders. Wagon caravans
thereafter made the 40- to 60-day annual trek along the 780 mile (1,260
km) Santa Fe Trail, usually leaving in early summer and returning after
a 4 to 5 week stay in New Mexico.
The Trail divided into Mountain and Cimarron Divisions southwest of
Kansas. The rugged Mountain Division passed over Raton Pass and
rejoined the more direct Cimarron Division near Fort
Union, New Mexico. The dry southern Cimmaron route offered poor
short grass and little wildlife. The Santa Fe National Historic Trail
follows the route of the old trail, with many sites marked or restored.
Kit (Christopher) Carson, apprenticed to a saddler in the Santa Fe Trail
outfitting point of Old Franklin, ran away from his job in 1826. He
joined a caravan for Santa Fe, and made
Taos, his home and headquarters as he made a
living as a teamster, cook, guide, and hunter for exploring parties
The breakaway Republic
of Texas claimed the territory north and east of the Rio Grande
when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. New Mexico authorities captured
a group of Texans who embarked an expedition to assert their claim to
the province in 1841. The United
States of America annexed Texas
as a state in 1845; the status of the territory of modern-day New
Mexico was finalized with the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at
the conclusion of the Mexican-American War.
Stephen W. Kearny entered Santa
Fe without opposition in 1846 during the Mexican-American War, and
his forces occupied the city, making New
Mexico a United States territory. On meeting Kit Carson, General
Kearney commanded Carson to guide his men to California.
Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, Mexico ceded much of
the American Southwest to the United
States of America. This new territory included most of the western
half of present-day New Mexico.
The change of national authority allowed Anglo-American culture to come
to New Mexico.
The Compromise of
1850 halted a bid for statehood under an antislavery constitution. Texas
transferred eastern New Mexico
to the federal government, settling a lengthy boundary dispute. Under
the compromise, the American government established the New Mexico Territory
on September 9, 1850. The territory, which included Arizona
and parts of Colorado, officially
established its capital at Santa
Fe, New Mexico in 1851. The people of New
Mexico would determine whether to permit slavery under a constitution
at statehood, but the status of slavery during the territorial period
provoked considerable debate. Some (including Stephen A. Douglas) maintained
that the territory could not restrict slavery, as under the earlier
Missouri Compromise, while others (including Abraham Lincoln) insisted
that older Mexican legal traditions, which forbade slavery, took precedence.
Regardless of its status, slavery never took a significant hold.
plundering led Kit Carson to abandon his intent to retire to a sheep
ranch near Taos. Carson accepted an 1853 appointment
as U.S. Indian agent with a headquarters at Taos,
and fought the Indians with notable success.
States acquired the southwestern bootheel of the state and much
of southern Arizona in the
Gadsden Purchase of 1853. With this purchase, the United
States established its sovereignty over all of the present state
of New Mexico.
During the American
Civil War, Confederate troops from Texas
first occupied southern New
Mexico. Union troops re-captured the territory in early 1862. Kit
Carson helped to organize and command the 1st New Mexican Volunteers
to engage in campaigns against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche in New
Mexico and Texas as
well as participating in the Battle of Valverde against the confederates.
The Arizona Territory split as a separate entity in 1863. Confedrate
troops withdrew after the Battle of Glorieta Pass where Union regulars,
Colorado Volunteers (The Pikes Peakers), and New Mexican Volunteers
The Roman Catholic
Church established an archbishopric center in Santa
Fe in 1875. The Santa Fe Railroad reached Lamy,
New Mexico, 16 miles (26 km) from Santa
Fe in 1879 and Santa Fe itself in 1880,
replacing the storied Santa Fe Trail. The new town of Albuquerque,
platted in 1880 as the Santa Fe Railroad extended westward, quickly
enveloped the old town.
The railway encouraged
the great cattle boom of the 1880s and the development of accompanying
cow towns. Cattlemen feuded between each other and with authorities,
most notably in the Lincoln County War. Outlaws included Billy the Kid.
The cattle kindgom could not keep out sheepherders, and eventually homesteaders
and squatters overwhelmed the cattlemen by fencing in and plowing under
the "sea of grass" on which the cattle fed. Conflicting land
claims led to bitter quarrels among the original Spanish inhabitants,
cattle ranchers, and newer homesteaders. Despite destructive overgrazing,
ranching survived as a mainstay of the New Mexican economy.
Confict with the
Apache and the Navajo plagued the territory until Apache chief Geronimo
finally surrendered in 1886.
on the upper Rio Grande, incorporated in 1889.
New Mexico as the 47th state
in the Union on January 6, 1912. The admission of the neighboring State
of Arizona on February 14, 1912 completed the contiguous 48 states.
The United States
government built the Los Alamos Research Center in 1943 amid the Second
World War. Top-secret personnel there developed the atomic bomb, first
detonated at Trinity site in the desert on the White Sands Proving Grounds
vaguely near Alamogordo on July 16, 1945.
expanded rapidly after the war. High-altitude experiments near Roswell
in 1947 reputedly led to persistent claims that the government captured
and concealed extraterrestrial corpses and equipment. The state quickly
emerged as a leader in nuclear, solar, and geothermal energy research
and development. The Sandia National Laboratories, founded in 1949,
carried out nuclear research and special weapons development at Kirtland
Air Force Base south of Albuquerque.
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, deep in salt formations near Carlsbad
readied for storage of nuclear wastes during the 1990s.
Law and Government
The capital of New
Mexico is Santa
Fe. The Constitution of 1912, as amended, dictates the form of government
in the State.
Governor Bill Richardson
and Lieutenant Governor Diane Denish, both Democrats, will face re-election
in 2006. Governors serve a term of four years and may seek reelection.
officers, all of whose terms also expire in January 2007, include Secretary
of State Rebecca Vigil-Giron, Attorney General Patricia A. Madrid, and
State Treasurer Robert E. Vigil. All three are Democrats.
A state house of
representatives with 70 members and a state senate with 42 members comprise
the state legislature. The Democratic Party generally dominates state
politics, and as of 2004 50% of voters were registered Democrats, 33%
were registered Republicans, and 17% did not affiliate with either of
the two major parties.
In national politics,
however, New Mexico occupies
the dead center, giving its 5 electoral votes to all but two Presidential
election winners since statehood. In these exceptions, New Mexicans
supported Republican President Gerald Ford over Georgia Governor Jimmy
Carter in 1976, and Democratic Vice President Al Gore over Texas Governor
George W. Bush (by just 366 popular votes) in 2000. No presidential
candidate has won an absolute majority here since George H. W. Bush
in 1988, and no Democrat has done so since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.
In the last four elections, New
Mexico supported Democrats in 1992, 1996, and 2000. New
Mexico was one of only two states to support Al Gore in 2000 and
George Bush in 2004. In 2004, George W. Bush narrowly won the state's
5 electoral votes by a margin of 0.8 percentage points with 49.8% of
the vote. Democrat John Kerry won in Albuquerque,
two northwestern Indian counties, and by large margins in the six predominately
Hispano/Spanish counties of Northern New Mexico (Santa Fe, Rio Arriba,
Taos, Mora, San Miguel, and Guadalupe).
Mexico sends Democrat Jeff Bingaman to the United States Senate
until January 2007 and Republican Pete V. Domenici until January 2009.
Republicans Steve Pearce and Heather Wilson and Democrat Tom Udall represent
the Land of Enchantment in the United States House of Representatives.
The Bureau of Economic
Analysis estimates that New Mexico's total state product in 2003 was
$57 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $24,995, 48th in
Cattle and dairy
products top the list of major animal products of New
Mexico. Cattle, sheep, and other livestock graze most of the arable
land of the state throughout the year.
Limited but scientifically
controlled dryland farming prospers alongside cattle ranching. Major
crops include hay, nursery stock, pecans, and chile peppers. Hay and
sorghum top the list of major dryland crops. Farmers also produce onions,
potatoes, and dairy products. New
Mexico specialty crops include piñon nuts, pinto beans, and
In the desert and
semiarid portions of the state, the scant rainfall evaporates rapidly,
generally leaving insufficient water supplies for large-scale irrigation.
The Carlsbad and Fort Sumner reclamation projects on the Pecos River
and the nearby Tucumcari project provide adequate water for limited
irrigation in those areas. Located upstream of Las
Cruces, the Elephant Butte Dam and Reservoir provides a major irrigation
source for the extensive farming along the Rio Grande. Other irrigation
projects use the Colorado River basin and the San Juan River.
Lumber mills in
process pinewood, the chief commercial wood of the rich timber economy
of northern New Mexico.
New Mexicans derive
much of their income from mineral extraction. Even before European exploration,
Native Americans mined turquoise for making jewelry, and later silver.
New Mexico produces uranium
ore, manganese ore, potash, salt, perlite, copper ore, beryllium, and
tin concentrates. Natural gas, petroleum, and coal are also found in
centered around Albuquerque, include
electric equipment; petroleum and coal products; food processing; printing
and publishing; and stone, glass, and clay products. Defense-related
industries include ordnance. Important high-technology industries include
lasers, data processing, and solar energy.
spending is a major driver of the New
Mexico economy; and provides more than a quarter of the state's
jobs. Many of the federal jobs relate to the military; the state hosts
three air force bases (Kirtland
Air Force Base, Holloman
Air Force Base, and Cannon
Air Force Base), a large army base (Fort
Bliss), national observatories, and the technology labs of Los Alamos
National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL
conducts electronic and industrial research next to Kirtland
AFB, on the southeast side of Albuquerque.
These installations also include the missile and spacecraft proving
grounds at White Sands. In addition to the military employers, other
federal agencies such as the National Park Service, the United States
Forest Service, and the United States Bureau of Land Management are
a big part of the states rural employment base.
many service jobs.
The private service
economy in urban New Mexico
has boomed in recent decades. Since the end of World War II Albuquerque
has gained an ever-growing number of retirees, especially among armed
forces veterans and government workers. The city is also increasingly
gaining notoriety as a health conscious community, and contains many
hospitals and a high per capita number of massage and alternative therapists.
The warm, semiarid climate has contributed to the exploding population
attracting new industries to New
Mexico. By contrast, many heavily Native American and Hispanic rural
communities remain economically underdeveloped.
(Not ranked by
College of Santa Fe
Boy Scouts of America
U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
Mesa Air Group
Los Alamos National Laboratory
PNM Resources and PNM Electric & Gas Services
Presbyterian Health Plan
Sandia National Laboratories
University of New Mexico
New Mexico State Government
U.S. Postal Service
Navajo Refining Company
U.S. National Park Service (NPS)
Allsup's Convenience Stores
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
Lockheed Engineering and Sciences
New Mexico State University
Pepsi Cola Bottling
NM Institute of Mining and Technology
U.S. Army (Fort Bliss)
According to the Census Bureau, as of 2004, the
population of New
Mexico was 1,903,289. The state's population
had grown 388,000 (25.6%) since 1990. As of 2004, 10% of the residents
of the state were foreign-born, and more than 2% of state residents
were illegal aliens.
Race and Ancestry
makeup of New Mexico:
9.5% Native American
3.6% Mixed race
The five largest ancestry groups in New
Mexico are: Spanish/Hispano (24%), Mexican (18.1%), English)
(7.6%), Native American (9.5%), and German (9.9%).
of colonial Spanish ancestry are present in most of the state,
especially northern, central, and northeastern New
Mexico. Mexicans are prominent in southern part of the state.
The northwestern corner of the state is primarily American Indian,
of which Navajos and Pueblos are the largest tribes. New
Mexico has the largest Hispanic population of any state, the
second largest proportion of American Indians, and the largest
percentage of residents of Spanish origin (24%).
7.2% of New
Mexico's population were reported as under 5, 28% under 18, and
11.7% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.8% of
Mexico has the highest percentage of Catholics of any Western
state. And like many other Western states, New
Mexico has a higher-than-average percentage of people who
claim no religion in comparison to other U.S. states.
Roman Catholic – 41%
Protestant – 35%
Baptist – 10%
Presbyterian – 4%
Pentecostal – 3%
Other Protestant or general Protestant – 18%
Mormon – 3%
Other Christian – 1%
Other Religions – 1%
Non-Religious – 19%
Mexico belongs to the Ecclesiastical Province of Santa
Fe. New Mexico
has three dioceses, one of which is an archdiocese:
of Santa Fe
Diocese of Gallup
Diocese of Las Cruces
With a Native American
population of 134,000 in 1990, New
Mexico still ranks as an important center of American Indian culture.
Both the Navajo and Apache share Athabaskan origin. The Apache and some
Ute live on federal reservations within the state. With 16 million acres
(65,000 km²), mostly in neighboring Arizona,
the reservation of the Navajo Nation ranks as the largest in the United
States. The prehistorically agricultural Pueblo Indians live in
pueblos scattered throughout the state, many older than any European
More than one-third
of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin, the vast majority of whom descend
from the original Spanish colonists in the northern portion of the state.
Most of the considerably fewer recent Mexican immigrants reside in the
southern part of the state.
At least one-third
of New Mexicans are also fluent in a unique dialect of Spanish. New
Mexican Spanish is rife with vocabulary often unknown to other Spanish
speakers. Because of the historical isolation of New
Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, the local dialect
preserves some late medieval Castillian vocabulary considered archaic
elsewhere, adopts numerous Native American words for local features,
and contains much Anglicized vocabulary for American concepts and modern
The tranquil climate
and startling panoramas have attracted Americans seeking health and
The presence of
various indigenous Native American communities, the long-established
Spanish and Mexican influence, and the diversity of Anglo-American settlement
in the region, ranging from pioneer farmers and ranchers in the territorial
period to military families in later decades, make New
Mexico a particularly heterogeneous state.
There are natural
history and atomic museums in Albuquerque,
which also hosts the famed Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta.
A large artistic
community thrives in Santa Fe. The capital
city has museums of Spanish colonial, international folk, Navajo ceremonial,
modern Native American, and other modern art. Another museum honors
resident Georgia O'Keeffe. Colonies for artists and writers thrive,
and the small city teems with art galleries. Performing arts include
the renowned Santa Fe summer opera, and
the restored Lensic Theater. Writer D.H. Lawrence resided in Taos.
The weekend after Labor Day boasts the burning of Zozobra, a sixty-foot
marionette, and Fiesta de Santa Fe.
Symbols of the
Southwest — a string of chile peppers and a bleached white
cow's skull hang in a market near Santa
New Mexico's top
Plaza of Santa Fe
San Miguel Mission
St. Francis Cathedral
El Rancho de las Golondrinas (Spanish Colonial living history museum)
Taos Pueblo, Taos art colony, and Ski Valley
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
White Sands National Monument, the Trinity Site, and Missile Range,
Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
Old Town Albuquerque
Petroglyph National Monument, Albuquerque
New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Rio Grande Zoological Park
Sandia Peak Tramway
National Atomic Museum
Indian Pueblo Culture Center
Chaco Culture National Historical Park, San Juan Basin
The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad, Chama
Gila Cliff Dwellings, Silver City
Roswell (UFO Landing Site) and the International UFO Museum, Roswell
Billy the Kid Museum, Fort Sumner
El Malpais National Monumant, Acoma Pueblo & Misson, and Laguna
Pueblo & Misson
Historic Lincoln, Ruidoso, and Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation
Very Large Array (VLA), Datil
The state also has a number of casinos located on Native American Indian
Reservations that attract thousands of visitors each year.
Important Cities and Towns
New Mexico's largest
cities are Albuquerque, Las
Cruces, Santa Fe, Rio
Rancho, and Roswell.
Colleges and Universities
College of Santa Fe
College of the Southwest
Eastern New Mexico University
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
New Mexico Highlands University
New Mexico Military Institute
New Mexico State University
St. John's College, Santa Fe
University of New Mexico
Western New Mexico University
State motto -"Crescit
eundo" ("It Grows as It Goes") 1912
State nicknames -"Land of Enchantment" (Spanish: "Tierra
de Encanto") 19_?, "The Colorful State" 19_?
State songs -"O Fair New Mexico" 1917, "Asi Es Nuevo
México" 1971, "New Mexico-Mi Lindo Nuevo México"
State flower -Yucca flower 1927
State tree -Two-Needle Piñon pine 1949
State bird -Greater roadrunner 1949
State fish -Cutthroat trout 1955
State animal -black bear 1963
State vegetables -chile and frijol 1965
State gem -turquoise 1967
State grass -blue gramma 1973
State fossil -coelophysis 1981
State cookie -bizcochito 1989
State insect -tarantula hawk 1989
State ballad -"Land of Enchantment" 1989
State poem -A Nuevo México 1991
State question -* "Red or Green?" 1999
State ship -"USS New Mexico (BB-40)" 1918-1946 , "USS
New Mexico (SSN-779)" **2006
State Question refers to a waiter asking a diner's preference for either
red or green Chile on their meal. This is usually distinct from Salsa,
as the Chile sauce, which is put on a meal is much finer and thicker.
Natives are more likely to refer to the Chile sauce put on their meal
as just plain "Chile", and not as any form of "salsa"
(which is usually reserved by natives in English for the salsa served
with chips, everything else is just "Chile"). If the diner
wants both the answer can be answered with, "Christmas", but
natives are more likely to just say, "both".
(**)The second USS
New Mexico, SSN-779, is scheduled to be constructed.
E. Chavez, An Illustrated History of New Mexico, 267 pages, University
of New Mexico Press 2002, ISBN 0826330517
Gonzales-Berry, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland:
A Chicano History of New Mexico, 314 pages - University of New Mexico
Press 2000, ISBN 0826321992
- Tony Hillerman,
The Great Taos Bank Robbery and other Indian Country Affairs, University
of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages,
- Paul Horgan,
Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History, 1038 pages,
Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, ISBN 819562513 - Pulitzer
W. Kern, Labor in New Mexico: Strikes, Unions, and Social History,
1881-1981, University of New Mexico Press 1983, ISBN 0826306756
- Marc Simmons,
New Mexico: An Interpretive History, 221 pages, University of New
Mexico Press 1988, ISBN 0826311105 - good introduction
above article in gray is licensed under the
uses material from the